Indicators, evidence, and impact within systems, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills 2012, http://www.arc.gov.au/pdf/ERA_Indicator_Principles.pdf, http://www.charitystar.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Return_on_donations_a_white_paper_on_charity_impact_measurement.pdf, http://www.oecd.org/science/innovationinsciencetechnologyandindustry/37450246.pdf, http://www.cahs-acss.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/ROI_FullReport.pdf, http://mice.cerch.kcl.ac.uk/wp-uploads/2011/07/MICE_report_Goldsmiths_final.pdf, http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=409614§ioncode=26, http://www.odi.org.uk/rapid/Events/ESRC/docs/background_paper.pdf, http://www.iscintelligence.com/archivos_subidos/usfacultyburden_5.pdf, http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/tag/claire-donovan/, http://www.atn.edu.au/docs/Research%20Global%20-%20Measuring%20the%20impact%20of%20research.pdf, http://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/10-099.pdf, http://www.esf.org/index.php?eID=tx_ccdamdl_file&p[file]=25668&p[dl]=1&p[pid]=6767&p[site]=European%20Science%20Foundation&p[t]=1351858982&hash=93e987c5832f10aeee3911bac23b4e0f&l=en, http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/2007/RAND_RB9202.pdf, http://www.rand.org/pubs/documented_briefings/2010/RAND_DB578.pdf, http://ukirc.ac.uk/object/report/8025/doc/CIHE_0612ImpactReport_summary.pdf, http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=415340§ioncode=26, http://www.publicengagement.ac.uk/sites/default/files/80096%20NCCPE%20Social%20Value%20Report.pdf, http://www2.lse.ac.uk/government/research/resgroups/LSEPublicPolicy/Docs/LSE_Impact_Handbook_April_2011.pdf, http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/documents/publications/340.pdf, http://www.ref.ac.uk/media/ref/content/pub/researchexcellenceframeworkimpactpilotexercisefindingsoftheexpertpanels/re01_10.pdf, http://www.ref.ac.uk/media/ref/content/pub/assessmentframeworkandguidanceonsubmissions/02_11.pdf, http://www.ref.ac.uk/media/ref/content/pub/assessmentframeworkandguidanceonsubmissions/GOS%20including%20addendum.pdf, http://www.ref.ac.uk/media/ref/content/pub/panelcriteriaandworkingmethods/01_12.pdf, http://www.russellgroup.ac.uk/uploads/REF-consultation-response-FINAL-Dec09.pdf, http://www.siampi.eu/Pages/SIA/12/625.bGFuZz1FTkc.html, http://www.siampi.eu/Content/SIAMPI/SIAMPI_Final%20report.pdf, http://www.thesroinetwork.org/publications/doc_details/241-a-guide-to-social-return-on-investment-2012, http://www.ucu.org.uk/media/pdf/n/q/ucu_REFstatement_finalsignatures.pdf, http://www.esrc.ac.uk/_images/Case_Study_of_the_Future_of_Work_Programme_Volume_2_tcm8-4563.pdf, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Automated collation of evidence is difficult, Allows evidence to be contextualized and a story told, Incorporating perspective can make it difficult to assess critically, Enables assessment in the absence of quantitative data, Preserves distinctive account or disciplinary perspective, Rewards those who can write well, and/or afford to pay for external input. The justification for a university is that it preserves the connection between knowledge and the zest of life, by uniting the young and the old in the imaginative consideration of learning. Author: HPER Created Date: 3/2/2007 10:12:16 AM . It is worth considering the degree to which indicators are defined and provide broader definitions with greater flexibility. 2009), and differentiating between the various major and minor contributions that lead to impact is a significant challenge. As a result, numerous and widely varying models and frameworks for assessing impact exist. It can be seen from the panel guidance produced by HEFCE to illustrate impacts and evidence that it is expected that impact and evidence will vary according to discipline (REF2014 2012). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. The Payback Framework is possibly the most widely used and adapted model for impact assessment (Wooding et al. This work was supported by Jisc [DIINN10]. Decker et al. The Author 2013. 1.3. 1. We take a more focused look at the impact component of the UK Research Excellence Framework taking place in 2014 and some of the challenges to evaluating impact and the role that systems might play in the future for capturing the links between research and impact and the requirements we have for these systems. only one author attempts to define evaluation. A comprehensive assessment of impact itself is not undertaken with SIAMPI, which make it a less-suitable method where showcasing the benefits of research is desirable or where this justification of funding based on impact is required. 0000002318 00000 n While aspects of impact can be adequately interpreted using metrics, narratives, and other evidence, the mixed-method case study approach is an excellent means of pulling all available information, data, and evidence together, allowing a comprehensive summary of the impact within context. In the educational context, the . Research findings will be taken up in other branches of research and developed further before socio-economic impact occurs, by which point, attribution becomes a huge challenge. Clearly there is the possibility that the potential new drug will fail at any one of these phases but each phase can be classed as an interim impact of the original discovery work on route to the delivery of health benefits, but the time at which an impact assessment takes place will influence the degree of impact that has taken place. SIAMPI has been used within the Netherlands Institute for health Services Research (SIAMPI n.d.). This article aims to explore what is understood by the term research impact and to provide a comprehensive assimilation of available literature and information, drawing on global experiences to understand the potential for methods and frameworks of impact assessment being implemented for UK impact assessment. Wigley (1988, p 21) defines it as "a data reduction process that involves the . evaluation practice and systems that go beyond the criteria and their definitions. Perhaps it is time for a generic guide based on types of impact rather than research discipline? The RQF pioneered the case study approach to assessing research impact; however, with a change in government in 2007, this framework was never implemented in Australia, although it has since been taken up and adapted for the UK REF. Table 1 summarizes some of the advantages and disadvantages of the case study approach. Attempts have been made to categorize impact evidence and data, for example, the aim of the MICE Project was to develop a set of impact indicators to enable impact to be fed into a based system. This raises the questions of whether UK business and industry should not invest in the research that will deliver them impacts and who will fund basic research if not the government? Impact has become the term of choice in the UK for research influence beyond academia. The introduction of impact assessments with the requirement to collate evidence retrospectively poses difficulties because evidence, measurements, and baselines have, in many cases, not been collected and may no longer be available. The following decisions may be made with the aid of evaluation. Impact assessments raise concerns over the steer of research towards disciplines and topics in which impact is more easily evidenced and that provide economic impacts that could subsequently lead to a devaluation of blue skies research. To be considered for inclusion within the REF, impact must be underpinned by research that took place between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2013, with impact occurring during an assessment window from 1 January 2008 to 31 July 2013. One notable definition is provided by Scriven (1991) and later adopted by the American Evaluation Association (): "Evaluation is the systematic process to determine merit, worth, value, or . Overview of the types of information that systems need to capture and link. The authors propose a new definition for measurement process based on the identification of the type of measurand and other metrological elements at each measurement process identified. 1. Downloadable! Narratives can be used to describe impact; the use of narratives enables a story to be told and the impact to be placed in context and can make good use of qualitative information. However, the Achilles heel of any such attempt, as critics suggest, is the creation of a system that rewards what it can measure and codify, with the knock-on effect of directing research projects to deliver within the measures and categories that reward. For systems to be able to capture a full range of systems, definitions and categories of impact need to be determined that can be incorporated into system development. 0000011585 00000 n Collecting this type of evidence is time-consuming, and again, it can be difficult to gather the required evidence retrospectively when, for example, the appropriate user group might have dispersed. 2010). Different authors have different notions of educational evaluation. While the case study is a useful way of showcasing impact, its limitations must be understood if we are to use this for evaluation purposes. The Social Return on Investment (SROI) guide (The SROI Network 2012) suggests that The language varies impact, returns, benefits, value but the questions around what sort of difference and how much of a difference we are making are the same. What is the Difference between Formative and Summative Evaluation through Example? 0000008675 00000 n Reviewing the research literature means finding, reading, and summarizing the published research relevant to your question. By allowing impact to be placed in context, we answer the so what? question that can result from quantitative data analyses, but is there a risk that the full picture may not be presented to demonstrate impact in a positive light? An alternative approach was suggested for the RQF in Australia, where it was proposed that types of impact be compared rather than impact from specific disciplines. In demonstrating research impact, we can provide accountability upwards to funders and downwards to users on a project and strategic basis (Kelly and McNicoll 2011). The point at which assessment takes place will therefore influence the degree and significance of that impact. "Evaluation is a process of judging the value of something by certain appraisal." Characteristics of evaluation in Education Below are some of the characteristics of evaluation in education, Continuous Process Comprehensive Child-Centered Cooperative Process Common Practice Teaching Methods Multiple Aspects Continuous Process One of these, the RQF, they identified as providing a promising basis for developing an impact approach for the REF using the case study approach. Aspects of impact, such as value of Intellectual Property, are currently recorded by universities in the UK through their Higher Education Business and Community Interaction Survey return to Higher Education Statistics Agency; however, as with other public and charitable sector organizations, showcasing impact is an important part of attracting and retaining donors and support (Kelly and McNicoll 2011). 2009). Accountability. 0000334705 00000 n What are the reasons behind trying to understand and evaluate research impact? Productive interactions, which can perhaps be viewed as instances of knowledge exchange, are widely valued and supported internationally as mechanisms for enabling impact and are often supported financially for example by Canadas Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, which aims to support knowledge exchange (financially) with a view to enabling long-term impact. A variety of types of indicators can be captured within systems; however, it is important that these are universally understood. However, it must be remembered that in the case of the UK REF, impact is only considered that is based on research that has taken place within the institution submitting the case study. There is a distinction between academic impact understood as the intellectual contribution to ones field of study within academia and external socio-economic impact beyond academia. Co-author. 0000008241 00000 n trailer << /Size 97 /Info 56 0 R /Root 61 0 R /Prev 396309 /ID[<8e25eff8b2a14de14f726c982689692f><7a12c7ae849dc37acf9c7481d18bb8c5>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 61 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 55 0 R /Metadata 57 0 R /AcroForm 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Fields [ ] /DR << /Font << /ZaDb 38 0 R /Helv 39 0 R >> /Encoding << /PDFDocEncoding 40 0 R >> >> /DA (/Helv 0 Tf 0 g ) >> endobj 95 0 obj << /S 414 /T 529 /V 585 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 96 0 R >> stream Evaluative research has many benefits, including identifying whether a product works as intended, and uncovering areas for improvement within your solution. In the majority of cases, a number of types of evidence will be required to provide an overview of impact. The case study approach, recommended by the RQF, was combined with significance and reach as criteria for assessment. The difficulty then is how to determine what the contribution has been in the absence of adequate evidence and how we ensure that research that results in impacts that cannot be evidenced is valued and supported. Findings from a Research Impact Pilot, Institutional Strategies for Capturing Socio-Economic Impact of Research, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, Introducing Productive Interactions in Social Impact Assessment, Measuring the Impact of Publicly Funded Research, Department of Education, Science and Training, Statement on the Research Excellence Framework Proposals, Handbook on the Theory and Practice of Program Evaluation, Policy and Practice Impacts of Research Funded by the Economic Social Research Council. 2008; CAHS 2009; Spaapen et al. What are the challenges associated with understanding and evaluating research impact? It is a process that involves careful gathering and evaluating of data on the actions, features, and consequences of a program. Citations (outside of academia) and documentation can be used as evidence to demonstrate the use research findings in developing new ideas and products for example. It is important to emphasize that Not everyone within the higher education sector itself is convinced that evaluation of higher education activity is a worthwhile task (Kelly and McNicoll 2011). In putting together evidence for the REF, impact can be attributed to a specific piece of research if it made a distinctive contribution (REF2014 2011a). 4. The Goldsmith report (Cooke and Nadim 2011) recommended making indicators value free, enabling the value or quality to be established in an impact descriptor that could be assessed by expert panels. The development of tools and systems for assisting with impact evaluation would be very valuable. 0000342798 00000 n The Payback Framework systematically links research with the associated benefits (Scoble et al. There is . Definition of Assessment & Evaluation in Education by Different Authors with Its Characteristics, Evaluation is the collection, analysis and interpretation of information about any aspect of a programme of education, as part of a recognised process of judging its effectiveness, its efficiency and any other outcomes it may have., 2. What emerged on testing the MICE taxonomy (Cooke and Nadim 2011), by mapping impacts from case studies, was that detailed categorization of impact was found to be too prescriptive. It is perhaps worth noting that the expert panels, who assessed the pilot exercise for the REF, commented that the evidence provided by research institutes to demonstrate impact were a unique collection. 0000342958 00000 n 2008), developed during the mid-1990s by Buxton and Hanney, working at Brunel University. 2006; Nason et al. 2007) who concluded that the researchers and case studies could provide enough qualitative and quantitative evidence for reviewers to assess the impact arising from their research (Duryea et al. , . While valuing and supporting knowledge exchange is important, SIAMPI perhaps takes this a step further in enabling these exchange events to be captured and analysed. SIAMPI is based on the widely held assumption that interactions between researchers and stakeholder are an important pre-requisite to achieving impact (Donovan 2011; Hughes and Martin 2012; Spaapen et al. Why should this be the case? Any person who has made a significant . An evaluation essay is a composition that offers value judgments about a particular subject according to a set of criteria. Describe and use several methods for finding previous research on a particular research idea or question. On the societal impact of publicly funded Circular Bioeconomy research in Europe, Devices of evaluation: Institutionalization and impactIntroduction to the special issue, The rocky road to translational science: An analysis of Clinical and Translational Science Awards, The nexus between research impact and sustainability assessment: From stakeholders perspective. For example, the development of a spin out can take place in a very short period, whereas it took around 30 years from the discovery of DNA before technology was developed to enable DNA fingerprinting. Metrics have commonly been used as a measure of impact, for example, in terms of profit made, number of jobs provided, number of trained personnel recruited, number of visitors to an exhibition, number of items purchased, and so on. Evaluative research is a type of research used to evaluate a product or concept, and collect data to help improve your solution. 0000007777 00000 n HEFCE developed an initial methodology that was then tested through a pilot exercise. While looking forward, we will be able to reduce this problem in the future, identifying, capturing, and storing the evidence in such a way that it can be used in the decades to come is a difficulty that we will need to tackle. Cb)5. Impact is not static, it will develop and change over time, and this development may be an increase or decrease in the current degree of impact. Capturing knowledge exchange events would greatly assist the linking of research with impact. Prague, Czech Republic, Health ResearchMaking an Impact. HEIs overview. The main risks associated with the use of standardized metrics are that, The full impact will not be realized, as we focus on easily quantifiable indicators. In line with its mandate to support better evaluation, EvalNet is committed to working with partners in the global evaluation community to address these concerns, and is currently exploring options for additional work. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of 3D rendering of the mandibular condylar region obtained from different semi-automatic segmentation methodology. Figure 2 demonstrates the information that systems will need to capture and link. The reasoning behind the move towards assessing research impact is undoubtedly complex, involving both political and socio-economic factors, but, nevertheless, we can differentiate between four primary purposes. According to Hanna- " The process of gathering and interpreted evidence changes in the behavior of all students as they progress through school is called evaluation". Scriven (2007:2) synthesised the definition of evaluation which appears in most dictionaries and the professional literature, and defined evaluation as "the process of determining merit, worth, or significance; an evaluation is a product of that process." . Standard approaches actively used in programme evaluation such as surveys, case studies, bibliometrics, econometrics and statistical analyses, content analysis, and expert judgment are each considered by some (Vonortas and Link, 2012) to have shortcomings when used to measure impacts. Hb```f``e`c`Tgf@ aV(G Ldw0p)}c4Amff0`U.q$*6mS,T",?*+DutQZ&vO T4]2rBWrL.7bs/lcx&-SbiDEQ&. There has been a drive from the UK government through Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) and the Research Councils (HM Treasury 2004) to account for the spending of public money by demonstrating the value of research to tax payers, voters, and the public in terms of socio-economic benefits (European Science Foundation 2009), in effect, justifying this expenditure (Davies Nutley, and Walter 2005; Hanney and Gonzlez-Block 2011). These traditional bibliometric techniques can be regarded as giving only a partial picture of full impact (Bornmann and Marx 2013) with no link to causality. The process of evaluation involves figuring out how well the goals have been accomplished. The Value of Public Sector R&D, Assessing impacts of higher education systems, National Co-ordinating Centre for Public Engagement, Through a Glass, Darkly: Measuring the Social Value of Universities, Describing the Impact of Health Research: A Research Impact Framework, LSE Public Policy Group. Providing advice and guidance within specific disciplines is undoubtedly helpful. It is therefore in an institutions interest to have a process by which all the necessary information is captured to enable a story to be developed in the absence of a researcher who may have left the employment of the institution. Muffat says - "Evaluation is a continuous process and is concerned with than the formal academic achievement of pupils. (2007:11-12), describes and explains the different types of value claim. The fast-moving developments in the field of altmetrics (or alternative metrics) are providing a richer understanding of how research is being used, viewed, and moved. One way in which change of opinion and user perceptions can be evidenced is by gathering of stakeholder and user testimonies or undertaking surveys. Evaluation of impact is becoming increasingly important, both within the UK and internationally, and research and development into impact evaluation continues, for example, researchers at Brunel have developed the concept of depth and spread further into the Brunel Impact Device for Evaluation, which also assesses the degree of separation between research and impact (Scoble et al. Gathering evidence of the links between research and impact is not only a challenge where that evidence is lacking. Attempting to evaluate impact to justify expenditure, showcase our work, and inform future funding decisions will only prove to be a valuable use of time and resources if we can take measures to ensure that assessment attempts will not ultimately have a negative influence on the impact of our research. What is The Concept of Evaluation With its Importance? An empirical research report written in American Psychological Association (APA) style always includes a written . 0000007223 00000 n Impact can be temporary or long-lasting. The definition of health is not just a theoretical issue, because it has many implications for practice, policy, and health services. Here is a sampling of the definitions you will see: Mirriam-Webster Dictionary Definition of Assessment: The action or an instance of assessing, appraisal . The Oxford English Dictionary defines impact as a Marked effect or influence, this is clearly a very broad definition. Media coverage is a useful means of disseminating our research and ideas and may be considered alongside other evidence as contributing to or an indicator of impact. Definition of Evaluation "Evaluation is the collection, analysis and interpretation of information about any aspect of a programme of education, as part of a recognised process of judging its effectiveness, its efficiency and any other outcomes it may have." Mary Thorpe 2. Understand. The most appropriate type of evaluation will vary according to the stakeholder whom we are wishing to inform.